Antioxidative effects of ascorbic acid and astaxanthin on ARPE-19 cells in an oxidative stress model.
PMID: Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 6 ;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 6. PMID: 32899990 Abstract Title: Antioxidative Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Astaxanthin on ARPE-19 Cells in an Oxidative Stress Model. Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated as critical pathogenic factors contributing to the etiology of diabetic retinopathy and other retinal diseases. This study investigated antioxidative effect of ascorbic acid and astaxanthin on ARPE-19 cells within an oxidative stress model induced by common biological sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (HO) at concentrations of 0.1-0.8 mM and 20-100 mJ/cmof ultraviolet B (UVB) were treated to ARPE-19 cells. Cell viability and intracellular ROS level changes were measured. With the sublethal and lethal dose of each inducers, 0-750μM of ascorbic acid and 0-40 μM of astaxanthin were treated to examine antioxidative effect on the model. Ascorbic acid at concentrations of 500 and 750 μM increased the cell viability not only in the UVB model but also in the HOmodel, but 20 and 40μM of astaxanthin only did so in the UVB model. The combination of ascorbic acid and astaxanthin showed better antioxidative effect compared to each drug alone, suggesting a synergistic effect.
Pycnogenol is well-tolerated and increases the effectiveness of broad-spectrum sunscreen and the triple combination in the treatment of facial melasma in women.
PMID: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020 Aug 25. Epub 2020 Aug 25. PMID: 32841433 Abstract Title: French maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) in association with triple combination cream for the treatment of facial melasma in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Melasma can be recalcitrant to treatment, and relapses are common. Pycnogenol has been reported to be effective in treating melasma.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 75 mg pycnogenol taken orally twice a day versus a placebo, in association with the triple combination and broad-spectrum sunscreen for the treatment of facial melasma.METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 44 women with facial melasma in a single centre from May 2019 through November 2019. Patients with melasma were randomly assigned to orally take 75 mg pycnogenol (PYC) or a placebo (PLAC) twice a day for 60 days. Both groups also received tinted sunscreen (SPF 50; PPD 17) for daytime use and a topical triple combination at bedtime. The primary outcome was a change from the baseline mMASI score. Secondary outcomes were improvements in the patients' quality of life (MELASQoL), colorimetric indices, and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS).RESULTS: All participants completed the trial. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39 (7) years, and 91% were phototypes III-IV. Both groups exhibited a reduction in mMASI scores, MELASQoL scores, and colour contrast (p
Health officials' 'List N' includes disinfectants approved for use against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that reportedly causes COVID-19, but that doesn't mean they've been approved as safe for humans
Health officials' 'List N' includes disinfectants approved for use against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that reportedly causes COVID-19, but that doesn't mean they've been approved as safe for humans. Now experts are worried we'll be facing a new epidemic of health problems linked to these toxic chemical exposures
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that surround you 24/7 could be interfering with your immune system function, even triggering allergic and inflammatory responses
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that surround you 24/7 could be interfering with your immune system function, even triggering allergic and inflammatory responses while interfering with your body's repair mechanisms
Cardioprotective effects of dietary flaxseed post-infarction are associated with changes in microRNA expression.
PMID: Biomolecules. 2020 Sep 8 ;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8. PMID: 32911872 Abstract Title: Cardioprotective Effects of Dietary Flaxseed Post-Infarction Are Associated with Changes in MicroRNA Expression. Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-135a, and miR-29b play a key role in many cardiac pathological remodeling processes, including apoptosis, fibrosis, and arrhythmias, after a myocardial infarction (MI). Dietary flaxseed has demonstrated a protective effect against an MI. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that dietary flaxseed supplementation before and after an MI regulates the expression of above-mentioned miRNAs to produce its cardioprotective effect. Animals were randomized after inducing MI by coronary artery ligation into: (a) sham MI with normal chow, (b) MI with normal chow, and (c-e) MI supplemented with either 10% milled flaxseed, or 4.4% flax oil enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or 0.44% flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. The feeding protocol consisted of 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after the surgery. Dietary flax oil supplementation selectively upregulated the cardiac expression of miR-133a, miR-135a, and miR-29b. The levels of collagen I expression were reduced in the flax oil group. We conclude that miR-133a, miR-135a, and miR-29b are sensitive to dietary flax oil, likely due to its rich ALA content. The cardioprotective effect of flaxseed in an MI could be due to modulation of these miRNAs.
PMID: Food Funct. 2020 Aug 28. Epub 2020 Aug 28. PMID: 32856645 Abstract Title: Flaxseed oligosaccharides alleviate DSS-induced colitis through modulation of gut microbiota and repair of the intestinal barrier in mice. Abstract: Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction with dysbiosis of gut microbiota contributes to the occurrence and acceleration of colitis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of flaxseed oligosaccharides (FOSs) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. UC was induced in mice by administering 2% DSS in drinking water for 8 days. Then, FOS (50 mg kg-1 d-1, 100 mg kg-1 d-1 and 200 mg kg-1 d-1) was administered by gavage for 14 days. The results showed that FOS treatment (200 mg kg-1 d-1) significantly ameliorated colitis by decreasing disease activity index (DAI), increasing colon length and improving colonic histology. FOS treatment (200 mg kg-1 d-1) down-regulated the critical markers of oxidative stresses, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Furthermore, FOS (200 mg kg-1 d-1) significantly suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and interleukin (IL)-1β but increased that of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. The 16S rDNA gene high-throughput sequencing results indicated that FOS treatment increased the gut microbial diversity and inhibited the proliferation of inflammation-related bacteria such as unidentified_Clostridiales. An increase in total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic acid and butyric acid, was also observed by FOS supplementation. FOS (200 mg kg-1d-1) also protected the intestinal barrier by increasing the protein levels of Claudin1 and Occludin. In conclusion,FOS attenuated DSS-induced colitis by modulating the gut microbiota and repairing the intestinal barrier.
PMID: Nutrients. 2020 Sep 13 ;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13. PMID: 32933181 Abstract Title: Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on the Adult Gut Microbiota and Barrier Function. Abstract: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the gut microbiota in infants by selectively stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the impact of HMOs on adult gut microbiota and gut barrier function using the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), Caco2 cell lines, and human intestinal gut organoid-on-chips. We showed that fermentation of 2'-O-fucosyllactose (2'FL), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and combinations thereof (MIX) led to an increase of bifidobacteria, accompanied by an increase of short chain fatty acid (SCFA), in particular butyrate with 2'FL. A significant reduction in paracellular permeability of FITC-dextran probe was observed using Caco2 cell monolayers with fermented 2'FL and MIX, which was accompanied by an increase in claudin-8 gene expression as shown by qPCR, and a reduction in IL-6 as determined by multiplex ELISA. Using gut-on-chips generated from human organoids derived from proximal, transverse, and distal colon biopsies (Colon Intestine Chips), we showed that claudin-5 was significantly upregulated across all three gut-on-chips following treatment with fermented 2'FL under microfluidic conditions. Taken together, these data show that, in addition to their bifidogenic activity, HMOs have the capacity to modulate immune function and the gut barrier, supporting the potential of HMOs to provide health benefits in adults.
PMID: Phytother Res. 2020 Jun ;34(6):1377-1384. Epub 2020 Jan 28. PMID: 31994278 Abstract Title: Ilex paraguariensis, white mulberry and chromium picolinate in patients with pre-diabetes. Abstract: AIM: to evaluate if a nutraceutical compound containing Ilex paraguariensis, White Mulberry and Chromium Picolinate can ameliorate glycemic status in patients with pre-diabetes.METHODS: we enrolled patients with IFG or IGT, not taking other hypoglycemic compounds. Patients were randomized to take placebo or the nutraceutical compound for 3 months, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Both treatments were self-administered once a day, 1 tablet during the breakfast.RESULTS: a reduction of FPG was observed with the nutraceutical combination (-7.8%). Furthermore, there was a decrease of HOMA-IR with the nutraceutical combination (-7.9%). M value was higher (p
PMID: Drug Des Devel Ther. 2020 ;14:51-60. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 32021091 Abstract Title: Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Rats by Regulating Oxidative Stress-Related Nrf2 Pathway. Abstract: Introduction: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI/R) injury is caused by blood flow recovery after ischemic stroke. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) is a major polyphenol component ofL. and Mate (.). Previous studies have shown that CGA has a significant neuroprotective effect and can improve global CI/R injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of CGA in CI/R injury has not been fully revealed.Materials: In this study, CI/R rat model was constructed. The rats were randomly divided into nine groups with ten in each group: Control, CGA (500 mg·kg-1), CI/R, CI/R + CGA (20 mg·kg-1), CI/R + CGA (100 mg·kg-1), CI/R + CGA (500 mg·kg-1), ML385 (30 mg·kg-1), CI/R + ML385 (30 mg·kg-1), CI/R + CGA + ML385. Cerebral infarction volume was detected by TTC staining. Brain pathological damage was detected by H&E staining. Apoptosis of cortical cells was detected by TUNEL staining. The expression of related proteins was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting.Results: Step-down test and Y maze test showed that CGA dose-dependently mitigated CI/R-induced brain damage and enhanced learning and spatial memory. Besides, CGA promoted the expression of BDNF and NGF in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated CI/R-induced nerve injury. Moreover, CGA increased the activity of SOD and the level of GSH, as well as decreased production of ROS and LDH and the accumulation of MDA. Notably, CGA attenuated oxidative stress-induced brain injury and apoptosis and inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9). Additionally, CGA reversed CI/R induced inactivation of Nrf2 pathway and promoted Nrf2, NQO-1 and HO-1 expression. Nrf2 pathway inhibitor ML385 destroyed this promotion.Discussion: All the data indicated that CGA had a neuroprotective effect on the CI/R rats by regulating oxidative stress-related Nrf2 pathway.
PMID: J Food Sci. 2020 Jul ;85(7):2186-2197. Epub 2020 Jun 22. PMID: 32567699 Abstract Title: In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Yerba Mate extract in colon cancer models. Abstract: Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. Aquifoliaceae) is a native South American tree and has a large amount of bioactive compounds. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the so-called westernized diseases and is the third most common cancer in both men and women. Efficient strategies for the treatment of CRC are extensively being explored including dietary intervention. The objective of our research was to evaluate the effects of Yerba Mate extract on cell proliferation, invasive capacity of tumor cells, and angiogenesis. For this, in vitro and in vivo experimentation was carried out using CRC models. The extract was generated by aqueous extraction and prepared according to traditional American procedure of preparing mate infusion. In vitro results showed that the Yerba Mate extract inhibits CT26 and COLO 205 cell proliferation with ICvalues of 0.25 and 0.46 mg/mL, respectively. We demonstrated by TUNEL assay that one of the mechanisms by which Yerba Mate extract decreases cell proliferation is by induction of apoptosis. In a murine syngeneic tumor model, oral administration of Yerba Mate extract in a dose of 1.6 g/kg/day significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth without affecting biological parameters or body weight. Our findings suggest that Yerba Mate may be a promising agent for the treatment of colon cancer and could be used as an herbal medicine or functional food ingredient. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Considering the chemical composition and presence of phenolic compounds with their free-radical scavenging activities and bioactivities against colon cancer cells, Yerba Mate can be a promising candidate as healthy food sources in human nutrition, and also be considered a natural source of potential antitumor agents. Taking into account the economic importance of Yerba Mate in Argentina, this vegetable would have a greater commercial value as a functional food.
Rosa canina distilled water could modulate tamoxifen-induced fatty liver as well as improving the sperm parameters.
PMID: Pak J Biol Sci. 2020 Jan ;23(2):173-180. PMID: 31944077 Abstract Title: Effect ofRosa caninaDistilled Water on Tamoxifen-treated Male Wistar Rats. Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In spite of therapeutic effect of tamoxifen on the breast cancer, it has some side effects on the liver including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study the effects of Rosa canina distilled water on the tamoxifen-induced fatty liver and oxidative stress status in male rats were investigated.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6: 1st group: Untreated control rats (C), 2nd group (T): The rats received tamoxifen, 3rd group (T+R): Rats received tamoxifen and Rosa canina distilled water and 4th group (R): Rats received only Rosa canina distilled water. Tamoxifen at 1 mg kg-1/day was injected subcutaneously for 7 days and the rats received orally Rosa canina distilled water at 1 mL/rat/daily for 14 days. At the end of the study, animals were studied for serum biochemical parameters (glucose, lipid profile, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, urea, ALT, AST, ALP, total protein, bilirubin, oxidative stress indices, sperm analysis and histology of the liver. The data were analyzed with SPSS software version 20 and expressed as Mean±SD.RESULTS: Rosa canina distilled water improved liver enzyme and renal function indices which disturbed due to tamoxifen treatment. While tamoxifen enhanced lipid peroxidation, Rosa canina distilled water reduced it. In addition, tamoxifen reduced the mobility, morphology and viability of sperms, but the Rosa canina distilled water enhanced the sperm parameters. Histological results also confirmed the adverse effect of tamoxifen and the favorable impact of the Rosa canina distilled water on the liver structures of animals.CONCLUSION: Rosa canina distilled water could modulate tamoxifen-induced fatty liver as well as improving the sperm parameters.
Characterization and anti-diabetic effects of the oligosaccharide fraction isolated from Rosa canina in STZ-Induced diabetic rats.
PMID: Carbohydr Res. 2020 Mar ;489:107927. Epub 2020 Jan 24. PMID: 32062396 Abstract Title: Characterization and anti-diabetic effects of the oligosaccharide fraction isolated from Rosa canina in STZ-Induced diabetic rats. Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. There has been a surge of research studies aiming to use natural products in the management of diabetes. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the structure and anti-diabetic mechanisms of the main ingredient from Rosa canina. The oligosaccharide was isolated from Rosa canina fruits and characterized by a combination of FTIR, NMR and Mass spectrometry. Wistar rats were divided into negative control, diabetic (type 2), isolated oligosaccharide (IO)-treated diabetic and positive diabetic controls. Oral glucose tolerance, gluconeogenesis andα-glucosidase inhibitory tests as well as immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time-PCR were performed to elucidate the molecular anti-diabetic mechanisms of IO. Structural analyses confirmed the oligosaccharide structure of isolated fraction. Gluconeogenesis and α-glucosidase activity wereinhibited by IO in diabetic rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was improved significantly in the group treated with the IO (P
Molecular mechanism of the anti-diabetic activity of an identified oligosaccharide from Rosa canina.
PMID: Res Pharm Sci. 2020 Feb ;15(1):36-47. Epub 2020 Feb 20. PMID: 32180815 Abstract Title: Molecular mechanism of the anti-diabetic activity of an identified oligosaccharide from. Abstract: Background and purpose: Because of the high prevalence, diabetes is considered a global health threat. Hence, the need for effective, cheap, and comfortable therapies are highly felt. In previous study, a novel oligosaccharide with strong anti-diabetic activity in the crude extract offruits, from thefamily, was identified. The present study was designed to ensure its efficacy usingandstudies.Experimental approach: Crude extract and its purified oligosaccharide were prepared from corresponding herb. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each, as follows: group 1, healthy control rats given only sterile normal saline; group 2, diabetic control rats received sterile normal saline; group 3, diabetic rats treated with crude extract of Rosa canina (40% w/v) by oral gavage for 8 weeks; group 4, diabetic rats treated with purified oligosaccharide of Rosa canina (2 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. After treatment, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin levels and islet beta-cell repair and proliferation were investigated. The possible cytoprotective action of oligosaccharide was evaluated. The effect of oligosaccharide on apoptosis and insulin secretion in cell culture media were examined. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of some glucose metabolism-related regulator genes.Findings / Results: In the animal model of diabetes, the insulin levels were increased significantly due to the regeneration of beta-cells in the islands of langerhans by the purified oligosaccharide.cell apoptosis examination showed that high concentration of oligosaccharide increased cell death, while at low concentration protected cells from streptozotocin-induced apoptosis. Molecular study showed that the expression ofandinsulin production genes were increased, leading to increased expression of insulin-dependent genes such asand. On the other hand, the expression of thegene, which is related to the glucose transporter 2, was significantly reduced due to insulin concentrations.Conclusion and implications: The purified oligosaccharide fromwas a reliable anti-diabetic agent, which acted by increasing insulin production in beta-cells of the islands of Langerhans.
Protective effect of the isolated oligosaccharide from Rosa canina in STZ-treated cells through modulation of the autophagy pathway.
PMID: J Food Biochem. 2020 Aug 6:e13404. Epub 2020 Aug 6. PMID: 32761921 Abstract Title: Protective effect of the isolated oligosaccharide from Rosa canina in STZ-treated cells through modulation of the autophagy pathway. Abstract: Isolation of active components of therapeutic plants and discovering molecular mechanisms play a pivotal role in therapy of diabetes. This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic mechanism of an oligosaccharide isolated from Rosa canina (RCO) by measuring the expression of some miRNAs and their targets involved in autophagy. RCO was extracted and characterized by using HPLC and spectroscopic methods. Rin-5F cells were treated with STZ and RCO alone and in combination. The viability of the cells and the expression of miR-21, miR-22, Akt, ATG5, Beclin1, LC3A, and LC3B were analyzed using MTT assay, and qRT-PCR, respectively. Oligosaccharide fraction could improve the viability of RCO-treated cells as compared to STZ-treated cells. Further, the expression of autophagy markers was increased in RCO-treated diabetic cells compared to STZ-treated cells. The results indicated that the antidiabetic effects of the oligosaccharide components of R. canina seem to be mediated by modulation of autophagy pathway. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Given effectiveness of an oligosaccharide fraction isolated from Rosa canina in management of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats, we have intention to scrutinize its molecular mechanism as modulation of autophagy pathway in STZ-treated Rin-5F cells. It is expected that the results paved the way to speculate novel antidiabetic strategies.
PMID: Pak J Pharm Sci. 2020 Mar ;33(2(Supplementary)):805-814. PMID: 32863255 Abstract Title: Rosa brunonii Lindely fruit as a new protective agent evaluated against Rif/INH induced toxicity in rats. Abstract: Rosa brunonii L., a less investigated plant contains flavonoid glycosides and is used to treat stomach ailments, heart problems, and diabetes in folk. The crude extract of the plant possesses antioxidant activity. The current work was aimed to investigate the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidative stress and protective potential of chloroform extract of the Rosa brunonii L. fruits (RBFCE) against liver and kidney toxicity induced by anti-tuberculosis drugs, rifampicin/isoniazid (Rif/INH) in Wistar albino rats. Animals were divided into six groups, each comprising 6 rats and fed with a standard pelleted diet. Normal control group was given only a standard pelleted diet. The vehicle control group received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous solution (vehicle). Negative and positive control groups were given Rif/INH (50+50 mg/kg, p.o) and silymarin (SILM) (200 mg/kg, p.o) in 0.5% vehicle for 30 days, respectively. Extract treated groups received low and high doses of RBFCE (500 mg/kg, p.o and 1000 mg/kg, p.o respectively) in 0.5% vehicle for 30 days. At a higher dose, animals showed significantly reduced Rif/INH induced toxicity in liver and kidney tissues as indicated by the normalized serum biochemical markers and histopathological investigations. The present exploration reveals the presence of strong antioxidant phytochemical constituents, antioxidative stress and protective potential of RBFCE against Rif/INH induced hepatic and renal damage.
PMID: Nutr Res. 2020 Jul 24 ;81:71-80. Epub 2020 Jul 24. PMID: 32920521 Abstract Title: Low-vitamin-D diet lowers cerebral serotonin concentration in mature female mice. Abstract: Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is commonly found in obese individuals and is often attributed to a volume dilution effect of adipose tissue. However, low vitamin D (LD) intake may contribute to the obesity itself. In this study, we examine whether low vitamin D status contributes to increased food intake and weight gain and can be explained by altered brain serotonin metabolism in 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice. In a first experiment, mice were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) containing different amounts of vitamin D at low (100 IU/kg), normal (1,000 IU/kg) or high (10,000 IU/kg) intake. After 10 weeks, mice fed LD had greater energy intake, weight gain, total and hepatic fat than the higher vitamin D groups (P
PMID: Alzheimers Dement. 2020 Sep 13. Epub 2020 Sep 13. PMID: 32921000 Abstract Title: Vitamin D intake is associated with dementia risk in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Low vitamin D intake and low vitamin D circulating levels have been associated with increased risk for dementia. We aimed to examine the association between vitamin D intake and dementia in a multiethnic cohort.METHODS: A longitudinal study of 1759 non-demented older (≥65 years) participants of the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project with follow-up visits and completed a food frequency questionnaire. Dementia was diagnosed by consensus using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Cox hazard regression was performed.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.8 years, 329 participants developed dementia. Participants with the highest tertile of vitamin D intake from food sources had decreased risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.97, P = .030) for dementia compared with those with the lowest tertile, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4, physical activity, Mediterranean diet (MeDI) score, income, depression, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and smoking.DISCUSSION: Higher vitamin D intake is associated with decreased risk of dementia in a multiethnic cohort.
This study demonstrates an association between low levels of serum 25[OH]D and increased orthopaedic infection.
PMID: Orthop Res Rev. 2020 ;12:121-125. Epub 2020 Aug 24. PMID: 32922096 Abstract Title: The Relationship Between Serum 25[OH]D Concentration and Orthopaedic Infection: A Case-Control Study. Abstract: Background: An estimated one in two healthy adults in the United Kingdom suffer from low levels of 25[OH]D. Vitamin D is involved in modulating immune response, but there is less clarity over its role in orthopaedic infection. This study assesses the relationship between serum 25[OH]D concentration and orthopaedic infection.Methods: A total of 205 patients in a tertiary referral centre for orthopaedic infection were included in the study. They were divided into groups based on their infection status, matched by age and gender. Data were statistically analysed to determine presence and direction of relationship.Results: A total of 114 patients had an infection. There was no statistically significant difference in age or gender between the two groups. Mean serum 25[OH]D concentration was 39 nmol/L in the group with infection and 59 nmol/L in the group without an infection (p
PMID: J Cancer. 2020 ;11(20):5971-5981. Epub 2020 Aug 15. PMID: 32922538 Abstract Title: Vitamin D inhibits the proliferation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by suppressing lncRNA LUCAT1 through the MAPK pathway. Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D (VitD) is associated with a reduced risk of many chronic illnesses, including cancer. However, the role of vitamin D in OSCC has rarely been reported.The effect of vitamin D and control treatment were examined by cell clone formation assay. Using RNA-seq, we globally identified VitD-regulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The expression of LUCAT1 in OSCC tissues and cell lines was examined by qRT-PCR. The correlation between LUCAT1 expression level and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The biological roles of LUCAT1 in OSCC cell proliferation was determined by CCK8 and cell colony formation. The role of LUCAT1 in OSCC growth was further confirmed by mouse xenograft tumor model. Combined with the literature, the mechanism of action of LUICAT1 was verified by western blot.In this study, we observed that VitD inhibited tumour cell growth in OSCC. We found that lncRNA LUCAT1 was downregulated by VitD and served as an important mediator of VitD in inhibiting OSCC cell proliferation. Moreover, we observed that the expression of LUCAT1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to non-tumour tissues. We further demonstrated that LUCAT1 promoted the proliferation of oral cancer cells by enhancing the activation of the mitogen protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway.In summary, our results show that VitD inhibited the growth of OSCC cells through the LUCAT1-MAPK signalling pathway. Our study suggested that VitD could suppress the progression of oral cancer, and LUCAT1 may be a potential tumour marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC.
PMID: Lupus. 2020 Sep 13:961203320957721. Epub 2020 Sep 13. PMID: 32924829 Abstract Title: Juvenile lupus and serum vitamin D levels: A cross-sectional study. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is usually associated with vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D in JSLE patients and to correlate these findings with disease activity and bone density.METHODS: This study was conducted on 100 patients with JSLE and 100 healthy children as controls. Disease duration and SLEDAI for disease activity were evaluated. CBC, anti-dsDNA, C3,C4,24hr urinary proteins, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate(e-GFR),Ca,P,PTH, 25 (OH) D levels, and bone mineral density(BMD)Z score were measured.RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean 25(OH)D concentration between patients group (19.37 ± 9.72 ng/ml) and controls 35.90 ± 9.66 ng/ml(p
This study demonstrates an association between Vitamin D deficiency and the severity/mortality of COVID-19.
PMID: Nutrients. 2020 Sep 10 ;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10. PMID: 32927735 Abstract Title: Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients. Abstract: Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. Without causal treatment, identification of modifiable prognostic factors may help to improve outcomes. To explore possible associations of vitamin D (VitD) status with disease severity and survival, we studied 185 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and treated at our center. VitD status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods. VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level
Meta-analysis demonstrates a clinically meaningful benefit of vitamin D supplementation on colorectal cancer survival outcomes.
PMID: Br J Cancer. 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15. PMID: 32929196 Abstract Title: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on survival in patients with colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with poor colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We assess whether vitamin D supplementation improves CRC survival outcomes.METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Randomised controlled trial (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation reporting CRC mortality were included. RCTs with high risk of bias were excluded from analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis models calculated estimates of survival benefit with supplementation. The review is registered on PROSPERO, registration number: CRD42020173397.RESULTS: Seven RCTs (n = 957 CRC cases) were identified: three trials included patients with CRC at outset, and four population trials reported survival in incident cases. Two RCTs were excluded from meta-analysis (high risk of bias; no hazard ratio (HR)). While trials varied in inclusion criteria, intervention doseand outcomes, meta-analysis found a 30% reduction in adverse CRC outcomes with supplementation (n = 815, HR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93). A beneficial effect was seen in trials of CRC patients (progression-free survival, HR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94), with suggestiveeffect in incident CRC cases from population trials (CRC-specific survival, HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.39-1.13). No heterogeneity or publication bias was noted.CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis demonstrates a clinically meaningful benefit of vitamin D supplementation on CRC survival outcomes. Further well-designed, adequately powered RCTs are needed to fully evaluate benefit of supplementation in augmenting 'real-life' follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, as well as determining optimal dosing.
PMID: Nutrients. 2020 Sep 11 ;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 11. PMID: 32933065 Abstract Title: Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease-Cause, Consequence, or a Vicious Cycle? Abstract: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone traditionally connected to phosphocalcium metabolism. The discovery of pleiotropic expression of its receptor and of the enzymes involved in its metabolism has led to the exploration of the other roles of this vitamin. The influence of vitamin D on autoimmune disease-namely, on autoimmune thyroid disease-has been widely studied. Most of the existing data support a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and a greater tendency for development and/or higher titers of antibodies linked to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, and/or postpartum thyroiditis. However, there have also been some reports contradicting such relationships, thus making it difficult to establish a unanimous conclusion. Even if the existence of an association between vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid disease is assumed, it is still unclear whether it reflects a pathological mechanism, a causal relationship, or a consequence of the autoimmune process. The relationship between vitamin D's polymorphisms and this group of diseases has also been the subject of study, often with divergent results. This text presents a review of the recent literature on the relationship between vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid disease, providing an analysis of the likely involved mechanisms. Our thesis is that, due to its immunoregulatory role, vitamin D plays a minor role in conjunction with myriad other factors. In some cases, a vicious cycle is generated, thus contributing to the deficiency and aggravating the autoimmune process.
Vitamin D deficiency was associated with decreased lung function in middle aged Korean men without overt medical conditions.
PMID: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15. PMID: 32934338 Abstract Title: Decreased lung function is associated with vitamin D deficiency in apparently health, middle aged Koreans: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There has been inconsistent relationships between serum vitamin D levels and lung function in previous studies. However, previous studies included patients with medical diseases, affecting both vitamin D levels and lung function. Considering this view of potential confounders, we investigated if vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is linked to lung function in health screening examinee without overt medical conditions.SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a cohort study on 68,457 healthy Koreans (36,759 males, mean age: 37.7 years) with a health examination in 2015. Measured forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were categorized in quartiles. To examine the relationships between VDD and lung function, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for VDD were estimated by logistic regression.RESULTS: Median vitamin D level was 14.9 ng/mL. The prevalence of VDD (defined as
Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with risk of incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living in adults.
PMID: J Nutr. 2020 Sep 16. Epub 2020 Sep 16. PMID: 32937653 Abstract Title: Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency with Risk of Incidence of Disability in Basic Activities of Daily Living in Adults>50 Years of Age. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency compromises muscle function and is related to the etiology of several clinical conditions that can contribute to the development of disability. However, there are few epidemiological studies investigating the association between vitamin D deficiency and the incidence of disability.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and to verify whether there are sex differences in this association.METHODS: A 4-y follow-up study was conducted involving individuals aged 50 y or older who participated in ELSA (English Longitudinal Study of Ageing). The sample consisted of 4814 participants free of disability at baseline according to the modified Katz Index. Vitamin D was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and the participants were classified as sufficient (>50 nmol/L), insufficient (>30 to≤50 nmol/L), or deficient (≤30 nmol/L). Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics were also investigated. BADL were re-evaluated after 2 and 4 y of follow-up. The report of any difficulty to perform ≥1 BADL was considered as an incident case of disability. Poisson models stratified by sex and controlled for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics were carried out.RESULTS: After 4-y follow-up, deficient serum 25(OH)D was a risk factor for the incidence of BADL disability in both women (IRR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.03) and men (IRR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.02). However, insufficient serum 25(OH)D was not a risk factor for the incidence of BADL disability in either men or women.CONCLUSIONS: Independently of sex, deficient serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with increased risk of incidence of BADL disability in adults>50 y old and should be an additional target of clinical strategies to prevent disability in these populations.
PMID: Heliyon. 2020 Sep ;6(9):e04795. Epub 2020 Sep 1. PMID: 32939414 Abstract Title: Association of vitamin D gene polymorphisms in children with asthma - A systematic review. Abstract: Introduction: The association of Vitamin D and children with asthma is known and there are several individual studies on Vitamin D polymorphisms. However, systematic reviews on all vitamin D associated gene polymorphisms have not been done in children with asthma.Objective: To investigate the association of Vitamin D associated gene polymorphisms and asthma in children (0-18 years) by systematic review and meta-analytic approach.Methods: Our search included 20 full text articles of which 15 were case control studies and 5 used family based linkage disequilibrium method. Total of 2491cases and 3682 controls were included in case control studies, with mean age of 9.58 years and 10.16 years respectively. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were done.Results: Quantitative analysis revealed significant association with protective effect of Apa1 polymorphism in allele (OR 0.81 (0.71,0.91) and homozygous major form (OR 0.83 (0.70,0.98) and Taq 1 minor allele in homozygous form (OR 0.73 (0.58,0.92) in children with asthma. However, the minor allele of Apa1(OR 1.21 (1.07,1.37), Bsm 1 in heterozygous (OR 1.35 (1.07,1.71) and homozygous minor form (OR 1.95 (1.59,2.39), major allele of Fok1(OR1.34 (1.17,1.52) and Taq1 (OR 1.22 (1.08,1.38) were found to be increasing the odds of asthma. Ethnic variations were noted in subgroup analysis. Qualitative analysis of the polymorphisms of the Vitamin D associated metabolic genes also showed significant associations.Conclusion: Our review shows significant associations with VDR polymorphisms - Apa1, Bsm1, Fok 1, Taq 1, polymorphisms of Vitamin D metabolic genes - CYP27A1, CYP 2R1, CYP 24A1, GC and genes related to Vitamin D response element (VDRE) in children with asthma. Conducting large studies involving various ethnic regions will strengthen our knowledge on the association and aid in targeted interventions for control of asthma in children.